James Joyce's Ulysses - Terry Eagleton

“The form of Ulysses is indeed in one sense an aesthetic resolution of historical contradictions – not least of the conflict between the new international circuits of capitalism, with their correlative cosmopolitan centers of culture in Paris, London, Berlin, and New York, and the older national formations or cultural traditions that are being increasingly outmoded. Modernism is at once, contradictorily, an exhilarating estrangement of such clapped-out national lineages from the powerfully distancing perspectives of exiles, and an expression of the rootless conditions of an international monopoly capitalism, whose abstractly universalist forms are mimed by modernism’s own progressively abstract techniques.”
Terry Eagleton, "Nationalism: Irony and Commitment”, Nationalism, Colonialism, and Literature, ed. Seamus Deane (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990), 23-42, 35.